Afghan Hound

Afghan Hound Introduction

The Afghan Hound is a graceful and elegant breed of dog known for its striking appearance and regal demeanor. Here is an introduction to the Afghan Hound:


  • Afghan Hounds are a breed known for their beauty. They are tall and slender, standing between 25 to 27 inches (63 to 69 cm) at the shoulder and weighing between 50 to 60 pounds (23 to 27 kg).
  • They have a distinctive, silky coat that comes in various colors, including cream, black, blue, brindle, and red. Their coat is long and fine, which requires regular grooming to maintain its condition.
  • The Afghan Hound’s facial features are refined with a long, narrow head, a prominent topknot of hair on their head, and dark, almond-shaped eyes that give them an alert and dignified expression.
  • They have a long, arched neck, a deep chest, and a slightly tucked-up abdomen. Their tail is long and carried with a curve.


  • Afghan Hounds are known for their independent and aloof nature. They are often described as reserved and dignified, making them seem somewhat aloof, but they are also loyal and affectionate with their families.
  • This breed can be somewhat aloof with strangers but is typically good with children and other pets when properly socialized from a young age.
  • Afghan Hounds have a strong prey drive due to their history as hunting dogs, so it’s important to supervise them around smaller animals.


  • The Afghan Hound is one of the oldest dog breeds in existence, with a history dating back thousands of years. They were originally bred by Afghan tribes to hunt large game, including leopards and deer, in the mountainous regions of Afghanistan.
  • The breed made its way to Europe in the early 20th century, where it gained popularity among royalty and the elite due to its exotic appearance.
  • Afghan Hounds were officially recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1926.

Exercise and Care:

  • Afghan Hounds are an active breed and require regular exercise. They enjoy running and playing in a secure, fenced-in area.
  • Their long coat requires regular grooming to prevent matting and tangles. Brushing a few times a week and occasional baths are necessary to maintain their coat’s health and appearance.
  • Afghan Hounds are sensitive dogs and respond best to positive reinforcement training methods.


  • This breed is generally healthy, but like all dogs, they can be prone to certain genetic health issues. Common concerns include hip dysplasia, cataracts, and heart disease.
  • Afghan Hounds have a unique metabolism, which may require special attention to their diet and exercise routine to maintain a healthy weight.

Afghan Hound History

The Afghan Hound has a rich and ancient history that dates back thousands of years. This breed is believed to have originated in the rugged regions of Afghanistan, where it was primarily used as a hunting dog by various tribes. Here’s a brief overview of the Afghan Hound’s historical journey:

  1. Ancient Origins: Afghan Hounds are considered one of the oldest dog breeds in existence. Their ancestors can be traced back to ancient times when they were bred by Afghan tribes to help them hunt in the harsh terrains of Afghanistan and neighboring regions. These dogs were used to hunt large game such as leopards, wolves, and deer.
  2. Hunting Abilities: Afghan Hounds are known for their incredible speed and agility, which make them well-suited for hunting in the mountainous and rugged terrain of Afghanistan. They would chase down prey and hold it until their human handlers arrived.
  3. Spread to the West: Afghan Hounds first began to attract attention in the Western world in the early 20th century when British soldiers and explorers brought them back from Afghanistan. These dogs were highly regarded for their exotic appearance, unique hunting skills, and elegant demeanor.
  4. Breed Development: As Afghan Hounds became more established in the West, breed enthusiasts began to work on standardizing and refining the breed’s characteristics. The breed’s distinctive long, flowing coat and aristocratic appearance were carefully maintained.
  5. Recognition: The Afghan Hound was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1926. It also gained recognition from other major kennel clubs around the world.
  6. Popularity: The Afghan Hound’s unique beauty and dignified presence made it a favorite among royalty and the elite. It became a symbol of elegance and sophistication.
  7. Modern Day: Today, Afghan Hounds are primarily kept as companion animals and show dogs. They are less commonly used for hunting, but their athleticism and speed are still evident in their behavior.

Throughout their history, Afghan Hounds have maintained their distinctive appearance and aloof, dignified temperament. They remain a cherished breed, admired for their regal bearing and enduring ties to the rugged landscapes of Afghanistan.

Afghan Hound Highlights

Afghan Hounds are a unique and captivating breed known for their distinctive characteristics and stunning appearance. Here are some highlights that set them apart:

Elegant Appearance: Afghan Hounds are often described as one of the most elegant dog breeds. Their long, flowing, silky coat, narrow head, and almond-shaped eyes give them a regal and aristocratic appearance.

Ancient Heritage: They are one of the oldest dog breeds in existence, with a history dating back thousands of years to the rugged mountains of Afghanistan. Their lineage reflects their long-standing role as hunting companions and companions to royalty.

Independent Nature: Afghan Hounds have a strong sense of independence. They may be aloof and reserved, especially with strangers, which can give them an air of sophistication and mystery.

Loyal Companions: Despite their independence, Afghan Hounds form strong bonds with their families and can be intensely loyal to their owners. They are known for their devotion and affection toward those they trust.

Playful and Agile: Afghan Hounds possess bursts of energy and agility. They enjoy playful activities and can be surprisingly athletic, making them a joy to watch when they’re in motion.

Low Barking Tendency: Unlike some breeds known for their vocal nature, Afghan Hounds are generally not excessive barkers. They are quiet and reserved, although they will alert their owners to unusual sounds or situations.

Strong Prey Drive: Due to their history as hunting dogs, Afghan Hounds have a strong prey drive. They may be inclined to chase smaller animals, so proper socialization and supervision are essential, especially around other pets.

Maintenance: Their luxurious coat requires regular grooming to prevent matting and tangles. Brushing, bathing, and coat care are necessary to maintain their coat’s health and beauty.

Exercise Needs: Afghan Hounds are an active breed and need regular exercise to stay fit and content. They excel in environments where they can run and play, making them suitable for active individuals or families.

Historical Significance: Afghan Hounds have played a role in various cultures and are often associated with luxury and nobility. They have been the companions of royalty and have been featured in art and literature throughout history.

Afghan Hound Personality

The Afghan Hound is known for its unique personality, which combines a sense of elegance, aloofness, and independence. Understanding the Afghan Hound’s personality traits is essential for potential owners to provide the right environment and care for this breed. Here are some key aspects of the Afghan Hound’s personality:

Independence: Afghan Hounds are independent dogs. They often exhibit a sense of self-reliance and can be somewhat aloof or reserved, especially around strangers. This independence is a characteristic developed through their history as hunting dogs, where they needed to make quick decisions while pursuing prey.

Dignified and Regal: Afghan Hounds are often described as regal dogs due to their elegant appearance and dignified demeanor. They carry themselves with a sense of grace and sophistication, which can be captivating to those who appreciate their unique presence.

Loyalty: Despite their aloofness, Afghan Hounds are known for forming strong bonds with their human companions. They can be deeply loyal to their families and are often affectionate with those they trust.

Reserved with Strangers: Afghan Hounds tend to be reserved when meeting new people. They may not be as immediately outgoing or eager to please as some other breeds. Proper socialization from an early age can help them become more comfortable around strangers.

Sensitivity: Afghan Hounds are sensitive dogs. They are attuned to their owner’s emotions and moods and may respond positively to gentle handling and training methods. Harsh training or scolding can be counterproductive with this breed.

Playfulness: Despite their dignified appearance, Afghan Hounds can be quite playful and enjoy a good romp or game with their owners. They have bursts of energy and agility, particularly when they are younger.

Prey Drive: Afghan Hounds have a strong prey drive due to their history as hunting dogs. They may be prone to chasing smaller animals, so it’s essential to supervise them around other pets, especially if they have not been socialized properly.

Moderate Barking: Afghan Hounds are not typically excessive barkers. They tend to be quiet and reserved, but they may alert their owners if they sense something unusual.

Exercise Needs: These dogs are active and require regular exercise to stay happy and healthy. They enjoy running and playing, and they thrive in environments where they have the opportunity to stretch their legs.

Grooming Attention: Afghan Hounds have a long, silky coat that requires regular grooming. Owners should be prepared for the grooming commitment, which includes brushing, bathing, and coat maintenance.

Afghan Hound Care

Caring for an Afghan Hound involves several important aspects to ensure their well-being, health, and happiness. Here are some key care considerations for Afghan Hounds:

1. Grooming:

  • Afghan Hounds have long, silky coats that require regular grooming to prevent matting and maintain their beauty. Daily or at least several times a week brushing is recommended to prevent tangles and keep their coat in top condition.
  • Regular bathing is also necessary, but be cautious not to overdo it, as excessive bathing can strip their coat of natural oils.
  • Pay special attention to their ears, as they can be prone to ear infections. Clean their ears regularly and keep them dry.

2. Exercise:

  • Afghan Hounds are an active breed with a love for running and playing. They require regular exercise to stay healthy and content.
  • A securely fenced yard or an area where they can run off-leash is ideal for them. They should also have daily walks to stimulate their minds and meet their exercise needs.

3. Socialization:

  • Early socialization is crucial to help them become comfortable around other dogs and people. Afghan Hounds can be reserved with strangers, so exposing them to various social situations from a young age can help them develop into well-rounded adults.

4. Training:

  • Afghan Hounds are intelligent but can have an independent streak. Positive reinforcement training methods, using treats and praise, work best with this breed. Be patient and consistent in your training efforts.
  • Focus on basic obedience commands like sit, stay, and recall, as well as leash training.

5. Nutrition:

  • Feed your Afghan Hound a high-quality dog food appropriate for their age, size, and activity level. Consult with your veterinarian for guidance on portion sizes and dietary requirements.
  • Be mindful of their unique metabolism and avoid overfeeding, as they can be prone to weight gain.

6. Veterinary Care:

  • Regular veterinary check-ups are essential to monitor your Afghan Hound’s overall health. Keep up with vaccinations, flea and tick prevention, and heartworm medication as recommended by your vet.
  • Discuss preventive measures for common breed-specific health issues, such as hip dysplasia or eye conditions.

7. Safe Environment:

  • Afghan Hounds are known for their jumping ability. Ensure that your fencing is secure to prevent them from escaping, as they may chase after small animals.

8. Mental Stimulation:

  • Provide mental stimulation through puzzle toys, interactive games, and obedience training. Afghan Hounds are intelligent dogs that thrive on mental challenges.

9. Love and Attention:

  • Afghan Hounds are loyal and affectionate with their families. Spend quality time with them, offer affection, and make them feel loved and secure.

10. Health Monitoring:

  • Keep an eye out for any signs of illness or discomfort, as Afghan Hounds can be sensitive to changes in their health. If you notice anything unusual, consult your veterinarian promptly.

Afghan Hound Health

Afghan Hounds are generally a healthy breed, but like all dogs, they can be prone to certain health issues. Responsible breeding practices, regular veterinary check-ups, and a healthy lifestyle can help minimize the risk of these health problems. Here are some of the common health issues associated with Afghan Hounds:

Hip Dysplasia: This genetic condition can affect Afghan Hounds, causing the hip joint to develop improperly. Hip dysplasia can lead to arthritis and lameness. Responsible breeders screen their breeding dogs for hip dysplasia to reduce the risk of passing it on to offspring.

Cataracts: Afghan Hounds can be prone to developing cataracts, which can impair their vision. Regular eye check-ups with a veterinarian can help detect and address this issue.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): PRA is a group of genetic eye disorders that can cause progressive vision loss and, eventually, blindness. Responsible breeding practices can help reduce the risk of PRA.

Bloat (Gastric Torsion): Afghan Hounds, like other deep-chested breeds, can be susceptible to bloat. This is a life-threatening condition where the stomach fills with gas and twists on itself. Immediate veterinary attention is required if bloat is suspected.

Heart Disease: Some Afghan Hounds may develop heart issues, including cardiomyopathy. Regular veterinary check-ups can help monitor heart health, and early detection is essential for treatment.

Allergies: Skin allergies are relatively common in Afghan Hounds. They can develop allergies to food, environmental factors, or parasites. Signs of allergies may include itching, skin irritation, and ear infections. Identifying and addressing the allergen is crucial.

Hypothyroidism: This condition occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones. Symptoms may include weight gain, lethargy, and skin issues. Hypothyroidism can be managed with medication.

Dermatologic Issues: Afghan Hounds have sensitive skin and can be prone to various dermatologic issues, including skin infections and hot spots. Regular grooming and skin care can help prevent these problems.

Autoimmune Disorders: Some Afghan Hounds may be susceptible to autoimmune disorders that affect various body systems. These conditions often require lifelong management with medications.

Cancer: As with many breeds, Afghan Hounds can be at risk for certain types of cancer. Early detection through regular veterinary check-ups is crucial for successful treatment.

To maintain your Afghan Hound’s health:

  • Work with a reputable breeder who conducts health screenings on their breeding dogs.
  • Schedule regular veterinary check-ups, including dental examinations.
  • Maintain a balanced diet and monitor their weight to prevent obesity.
  • Provide regular exercise to keep them fit and mentally stimulated.
  • Pay attention to any changes in behavior, appetite, or physical condition, and consult your veterinarian promptly if you notice any concerns.

While Afghan Hounds may be susceptible to certain health issues, many individuals live long and healthy lives when provided with proper care and attention. Regular veterinary care and responsible breeding practices are essential in maintaining the health of this elegant breed.

Afghan Hound Feeding

Feeding an Afghan Hound is an essential aspect of their care, and providing a well-balanced diet is crucial to their overall health and well-being. Here are some guidelines and considerations for feeding Afghan Hounds:

  1. Choose High-Quality Dog Food:
    • Select a high-quality commercial dog food that is appropriate for your Afghan Hound’s age, size, and activity level. Look for products that list a protein source (like meat or fish) as the first ingredient and contain minimal fillers or artificial additives.
  2. Puppy Feeding:
    • Afghan Hound puppies require a diet that supports their growth and development. Puppy-specific dog food is formulated to provide the necessary nutrients during this stage. Follow the feeding recommendations on the packaging or consult your veterinarian for guidance.
  3. Adult Feeding:
    • Once your Afghan Hound reaches adulthood (around 12 to 18 months of age), transition them to adult dog food. Continue to monitor their weight and adjust their portion sizes accordingly to maintain a healthy weight.
  4. Senior Feeding:
    • As your Afghan Hound enters their senior years (typically around 7 years of age), consider switching to a senior dog food formula that is tailored to the needs of older dogs. Senior formulas may contain joint supplements and fewer calories.
  5. Portion Control:
    • Afghan Hounds can be prone to weight gain if overfed. Measure your dog’s food portions carefully, and avoid free-feeding (leaving food out all day). Follow the feeding guidelines provided on the dog food packaging as a starting point and adjust based on your dog’s individual needs.
  6. Avoid Table Scraps and Human Food:
    • It’s best to refrain from feeding your Afghan Hound table scraps or human food, as some human foods can be toxic to dogs. Stick to their regular dog food to ensure they receive the right nutrients in the correct proportions.
  7. Hydration:
    • Always provide fresh, clean water for your Afghan Hound. Proper hydration is essential for their overall health.
  8. Special Dietary Considerations:
    • If your Afghan Hound has specific dietary needs or allergies, work with your veterinarian to select an appropriate diet. There are commercial dog foods formulated for dogs with allergies or sensitivities.
  9. Monitor Weight and Health:
    • Regularly monitor your Afghan Hound’s weight and overall health. Adjust their diet as needed to maintain a healthy body condition. Consult your veterinarian if you have concerns about their weight or nutritional needs.
  10. Feeding Schedule:
    • Establish a regular feeding schedule, typically consisting of two meals a day for adult Afghan Hounds. Puppies may require more frequent feedings initially.

It’s important to remember that the dietary needs of Afghan Hounds can vary from one dog to another. Factors such as age, activity level, and individual metabolism play a role in determining the right amount and type of food. Consult with your veterinarian for personalized feeding recommendations to ensure your Afghan Hound receives the best nutrition for their specific needs.

Afghan Hound Coat Color And Grooming

Afghan Hounds are renowned for their striking and luxurious coat, which comes in various colors and patterns. Grooming this breed’s coat is an essential part of their care to maintain its beauty and health. Here’s an overview of Afghan Hound coat colors and grooming:

Coat Colors and Patterns: Afghan Hounds can have a range of coat colors, and they are recognized in various shades by kennel clubs and breed standards. Some of the most common coat colors include:

  1. Cream: A light, pale cream color is quite common in Afghan Hounds.
  2. Red: Afghan Hounds can have deep red coats, ranging from a light red to a richer, darker hue.
  3. Black: Some Afghan Hounds have black coats or black masks on their faces.
  4. Blue: This refers to a bluish-gray coat color.
  5. Brindle: Brindle Afghan Hounds have a pattern of dark stripes on a lighter background.
  6. White: Afghan Hounds with predominantly white coats are also seen.

It’s important to note that Afghan Hounds can come in various shades and combinations of these colors, and their coats are typically described as “sable,” which means a mix of different colors within the coat. The specific coat color and pattern can vary from one individual to another.

Grooming Afghan Hounds: Grooming an Afghan Hound can be a time-intensive task due to their long, silky coat. Regular grooming is essential to keep their coat healthy and prevent matting. Here are some grooming tips:

  1. Brushing: Afghan Hounds should be brushed at least several times a week, if not daily, to prevent tangles and matting. Use a slicker brush or pin brush to gently remove dirt and debris from the coat. Pay close attention to their feathering (longer hair on the legs and tail) and the topknot on their head.
  2. Bathing: Afghan Hounds should be bathed regularly to keep their coat clean and in good condition. Use a dog-specific shampoo and conditioner to maintain the coat’s silkiness. Be careful not to over-bathe, as frequent baths can strip natural oils from their coat.
  3. Coat Care: After bathing, make sure to thoroughly dry the coat to prevent mold and skin issues. Use a blow dryer on a low-heat setting to help with this process.
  4. Trimming: Regularly trim the hair around their feet and nails to keep their paws tidy. Additionally, trim the hair around their ears to prevent matting and ensure good air circulation.
  5. Ear and Eye Care: Afghan Hounds have long ears, so it’s important to clean them regularly to prevent ear infections. Keep an eye on their eyes to ensure they are free from discharge or debris.
  6. Professional Grooming: Many Afghan Hound owners choose to have their dogs professionally groomed to maintain their coat’s health and appearance. Professional groomers are experienced in working with this breed’s unique coat.
  7. Dental Care: Don’t forget about your dental health. Regularly brush their teeth and provide dental chews or toys to promote good oral hygiene.
  8. Nail Trimming: Keep their nails trimmed to prevent them from becoming too long and causing discomfort or issues with their gait.

Grooming an Afghan Hound can be a labor of love, but their stunning coat is one of their most distinguishing features. With proper care and attention, you can help your Afghan Hound maintain their coat’s beauty and overall health.

Afghan Hound Children And Other Pets

Afghan Hounds can generally get along well with children and other pets when properly socialized and raised in a suitable environment. However, there are some important considerations to keep in mind:


  • Afghan Hounds are typically gentle and tolerant dogs, making them good companions for families with children. However, they may be reserved around young children, especially if they are not accustomed to them.
  • It’s essential to teach children how to interact with Afghan Hounds properly. Supervision is crucial, especially when young children are involved, to prevent accidental rough handling or pulling on the dog’s long coat, which could lead to discomfort.
  • Afghan Hounds may be more comfortable with older children who can understand and respect their need for personal space.

Other Pets:

  • Afghan Hounds can coexist with other dogs and pets, but early socialization is key. If they are introduced to other animals at a young age, they are more likely to accept them as part of the family.
  • Their strong prey drive, stemming from their history as hunting dogs, can be a concern around smaller pets such as cats, rabbits, or small rodents. Close supervision and careful introductions are necessary if you plan to have multiple types of pets in your household.
  • Afghan Hounds often get along well with other dogs, particularly if they are of similar size and energy level. They may enjoy having a canine companion for play and exercise.


  • Proper socialization is vital for Afghan Hounds to ensure they are comfortable around children and other pets. Expose them to various people, situations, and animals from a young age to help them develop positive social behaviors.
  • Positive reinforcement training can also help teach them to interact politely with children and other animals.

Individual Variation:

  • It’s important to remember that individual Afghan Hounds may have their own unique personalities. While the breed has certain characteristics, there can be variation in temperament from one dog to another.
  • Pay attention to your Afghan Hound’s behavior and preferences. Some may be more sociable and tolerant, while others may be more reserved.

Afghan Hound Size, Weight, and Height

Afghan Hounds are a medium to large breed known for their graceful and slender appearance. Here are the typical size, weight, and height ranges for Afghan Hounds:


  • Afghan Hounds are classified as a medium to large breed.
  • They are considered a sighthound, which means they have a lean and athletic build designed for speed and agility.


  • The weight of an Afghan Hound can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and individual genetics.
  • Adult Afghan Hound males typically weigh between 55 to 65 pounds (25 to 29.5 kilograms).
  • Adult Afghan Hound females are usually slightly smaller and lighter, with a weight range of 50 to 60 pounds (22.5 to 27 kilograms).


  • Afghan Hounds are known for their tall and elegant stature.
  • Adult Afghan Hound males typically stand between 27 to 29 inches (68.5 to 73.5 centimeters) at the shoulder.
  • Adult Afghan Hound females are slightly shorter, with a height range of 25 to 27 inches (63.5 to 68.5 centimeters).

Afghan Hound Lifespan

The average lifespan of an Afghan Hound typically falls in the range of 12 to 14 years. However, like many dog breeds, the lifespan of an Afghan Hound can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, diet, exercise, and overall care.

Here are some factors that can affect the lifespan of Afghan Hounds:

Genetics: The genetics of an individual dog play a significant role in determining its lifespan. Responsible breeding practices that aim to reduce the risk of hereditary health issues can contribute to a longer, healthier life.

Diet: Providing a well-balanced and nutritious diet is essential for maintaining an Afghan Hound’s overall health. Proper nutrition can help prevent obesity and reduce the risk of diet-related health issues.

Exercise: Afghan Hounds are an active breed and require regular exercise to stay physically and mentally healthy. Adequate exercise can help prevent obesity and maintain their overall well-being.

Regular Veterinary Care: Routine check-ups with a veterinarian are crucial for early detection and management of any health issues. Regular vaccinations, parasite control, dental care, and preventive measures can all contribute to a longer lifespan.

Grooming: Proper grooming, including regular brushing to prevent matting and skin issues, is essential for an Afghan Hound’s health. Maintaining their coat and skin can help prevent discomfort and related health problems.

Stress Reduction: Minimizing stress and providing a stable and loving environment can contribute to a longer and happier life for Afghan Hounds.

Breed-Specific Health Concerns: Afghan Hounds may be prone to specific health issues, such as hip dysplasia, cataracts, and skin conditions. Managing these concerns through preventive measures and early treatment can extend their lifespan.

FAQs Afghan Hound

Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about Afghan Hounds:

1. What is the origin of the Afghan Hound?

  • Afghan Hounds have a rich history dating back thousands of years to the mountains of Afghanistan, where they were bred by Afghan tribes to hunt large game, such as leopards and deer.

2. What is the temperament of Afghan Hounds?

  • Afghan Hounds are known for their independent and aloof nature. They can be reserved with strangers but are typically loyal and affectionate with their families. They are also playful and agile.

3. Are Afghan Hounds good with children and other pets?

  • Afghan Hounds can get along well with children and other pets when properly socialized and raised in a suitable environment. Supervision and early socialization are essential to ensure positive interactions.

4. How much exercise do Afghan Hounds need?

  • Afghan Hounds are an active breed and require regular exercise to stay healthy and happy. They enjoy running and playing, and a securely fenced area is ideal for their exercise needs.

5. How should I groom my Afghan Hound’s long coat?

  • Afghan Hounds have a long, silky coat that requires regular grooming to prevent matting. Daily or frequent brushing is recommended. Regular baths and attention to their ears and eyes are also essential.

6. What is the average lifespan of an Afghan Hound?

  • The average lifespan of an Afghan Hound typically falls in the range of 12 to 14 years, but individual lifespans can vary depending on genetics and care.

7. Are Afghan Hounds good apartment dogs?

  • Afghan Hounds are active dogs that benefit from space to run. While they can adapt to apartment living with proper exercise, they thrive in environments where they have room to move.

8. Do Afghan Hounds bark a lot?

  • Afghan Hounds are not known for excessive barking. They are typically quiet and reserved, although they may bark to alert their owners to unusual sounds or situations.

9. Are Afghan Hounds easy to train?

  • Afghan Hounds are intelligent but can have an independent streak. Positive reinforcement training methods and patience are important when training them.

10. Do Afghan Hounds have any specific health concerns? – Afghan Hounds can be prone to certain health issues, including hip dysplasia, cataracts, and skin conditions. Regular veterinary check-ups and responsible breeding practices can help mitigate these concerns.

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